Consumers will be looking for foods and supplements to help bridge nutritional gaps for these key nutrients. Consumer demand for these nutrients will grow as the industry, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), and other agencies increase public awareness
The diet of many Americans lacks in fruits, vegetables, dairy, whole grains, and seafood, which can lead to under-consumption of certain key nutrients.
Good morning again, or good afternoon to everyone. We still have a few people walking in, so we're going to give them just a minute or two to get settled in and then we'll get under way. In the meantime, I'm going to go over just a couple of items: I'm Moira Watson, the Vice President of Marketing and Communications at Watson, and I would like to thank you all for joining us today for our webinar on the Nutrients of Concern. Today's webinar is being presented by Watson, one of the highest-quality suppliers of value-added ingredients, formulated to enhance human health and nutrition. We are a leader in developing custom nutrient blends for the food and dietary supplement industry. Our expertise in microencapsulation, agglomeration, micronizing, and spray drying allows us to develop unique formulations using Watson's value-added ingredients. Before I introduce our topic and our speaker, I'd like to just cover a couple of housekeeping issues. We encourage you to share your comments and ask questions. Please look for the Q&A chat box on your screen. If you have a question, just type it in there and I'll hold it for discussion at the end of the event. Because of the topic, we anticipate a lot of questions. We're going to do our best to answer as many as possible at the end of the webinar. We can also follow up by e-mail to answer additional questions, if we run out of time. Today's webinar is being recorded, we'll be able to share a link to the recording with you via email tomorrow.
Tomorrow we will also post a link of the recorded webinar on our web site in the media library, which is found under the 'About Us' section on our web site. We invite you to revisit the content yourself and share it with your colleagues. We also have a comprehensive guide to the nutrients of concern, which is available for download on our website. We also invite you to stop by our booth, if you are attending the IFT Food Expo next month in Chicago, stop by our booth. It's S2813 and pick up a printed copy of the guide. Today's presenter is Alice Wilkinson, one of the industry's leading experts in nutrition. I've had the pleasure of collaborating with Alice over the past 18 years at Watson, where she is currently our Vice President of Innovation. At this time, I'm going to hand over the floor to Alice to start today's presentation. Alice, it's all yours.
Thank you Moira. Good afternoon everyone. I would really like to thank all of you for taking the time today, to review these nutrients of concern with us, they're from the current dietary guidelines for Americans and we're going to explore how, as food manufacturers, we can maybe assist in helping fill these gaps. Now that the new nutritional labeling law deadlines have been pushed out, so that's being pushed out to January 2020 for larger companies or 2021 for some smaller companies, we do have a little bit of time to put into our R&D and product development to see what we can accomplish. I think we're going to start off right now with a survey question to see who out there has already done conversions to the new labels.
So if you could please respond to that poll by clicking yes or no. Poll is open right now. So far it looks like we're about 50/50, half of you attending are a 'Yes' you have changed a label, and half still have not. That's good. I'm going to go through a little bit of both the current label and the new label so we can talk about both as we go through. The Nutrient Gaps that were identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are very real and they do have some serious, long-lasting effects on our health. So in all likelihood, there are other nutrients that have shortfalls, that are just as problematic as the ones we're going to go through today, this is really just a place for us to start. As good manufacturers, we really do have an obligation to do our best to provide some reasonably-priced and still nutrient-complete products to our general population. So in that vein let's start and see which ones are the biggest gaps... In regards to an agenda today, I thought we would start by reviewing exactly what the DGA is and then we'll explain the differences between the recommended dietary allowances versus the daily values, so you'll understand where all the alphabet soup comes from.
We'll then explain what the nutrients of concern are and why they are up at the top of the list for being concerns, and then we'll also be talking through the challenges of fortifying and filling those nutrient gaps. The dietary guidelines is a publication that's released once every five years. It's a requirement for publication under the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act, and one of the most striking findings of the current DGA is that half of all Americans have one or more totally preventable chronic diseases related to poor eating patterns and physical inactivity. So we think about the gigantic cost of healthcare in this country and realize that a lot of it is preventable just by eating in a healthier fashion than we are right now. This is big business, right. This is 117 million Americans that are suffering from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, they are overweight or they're obese, and the cost of it is truly staggering. The data as old as 2008, so 10 year old data at this point, that obesity was costing the U.S. then 147 billion dollars a year. So by 2012 which still isn't the most recent data, diabetes alone was costing us 245 billion dollars, 176 (billion) of that is in direct medical costs and nearly another 70 (billion) in decreased productivity. So that's huge, there's obvious significance that underlines the need for the DGA. The current DGA that we're working with right now is one that was released in 2015 and it's designated as the 2015-2020 DGA. It's based on recommendations from an advisory committee that is put together via collaboration from the USDA and the Department of Human Health Services. So interestingly, they're gathering a committee right now for the 2020-2025 edition. Their responsibility is collaborative and that committee reviews all sorts of nutrient data, intake, national survey information, current science on nutrition, a lot of different areas that they pull from, and they use that information to create a scientific report that is then rolled into the DGA.
Typically the DGA builds off the last edition, the one that we're on right now, the 2015, is based off the 2010 edition, and it's got revisions that are recommended by the committee from their scientific report. So, the committee they're pulling together now is pretty crucial in shaping what the policies are going to be in the future. The focus of the DGA has always been based on prevention of disease, it's prevention versus treatment, versus some of the other reports that are out there from other committees. All about prevention. And this is supposed to be for all Americans and individuals who are at least 2 years old or older. Within the DGA, it starts with five guidelines and those guidelines are really designed to encourage a healthy eating pattern, recognizing that everyone's an individual and they all need to shift their choices. We're not looking for a huge clean slate, but we're looking for some small changes that will give people a healthier outcome. And then, all segments of society really have a role to play in this; it's not just one person at one point in time. It takes a village to help the changes become significant. Within the five guidelines, they're really telling us what we should be doing.
So typically the DGA builds off the last edition the one that we're on right now but 2015 is based off the 2020 dish or the 2010 edition and it got revisions that are recommended by the committee from their scientific report. So the committee they're pulling together now is pretty crucial in shaping what the policies are going to be in the future. So the focus of the DGA has always been based on prevention of disease so it's prevention versus treatment versus some of the other reports that are out there from other committees all about prevention. And this is supposed to be for all Americans and individuals who are at least 2 years old or older so within the DGA it starts with five guidelines and those guidelines are really designed to encourage like a healthy eating pattern recognizing that everyone's an individual and they all need to shift their choices. So not looking for a huge clean slate but we're looking for some small changes that will give people a healthier outcome. And in all segments of society really have a role to play in this it's not just one person at one point in time. It takes a village to help the change becomes significant so within the five guidelines so they're really kind of telling us what we should be doing. The first fall is about following healthy eating patterns across your lifespan. So it's not about making a really healthy change on January 1st. And maybe holding out till February 1st with it.
The first guideline is all about following healthy eating patterns across your lifespan. So it's not about making a really healthy change on January 1st and maybe holding out till February 1st with it. It's about being healthy from when you're very young to when you're older. And making sure that all those food and beverage choices that you go through in your entire lifetime matter, so that you're starting with a healthy pattern and that's helping you choose the right products to consume at the appropriate calorie level, helping you maintain a healthy body weight. You get supporting your total nutrient adequacy with the end goal being of reducing chronic disease.
The second guideline is focusing on variety, nutrient density, and amount of foods consumed. So we are opening a second poll right now. That second poll is about how you would actually grade your diet. So we're going to get this information I'm going to bring it back up in a little bit. So you grade yourself as an A B or C you get all the nutrients that you need from your current diet. You get most are some of the nutrients that you need, or you know that you're not getting the nutrients that you need. And let's see here how we doing on voting. Right now about 60 percent of you are hanging out in the middle. There are 30 percent of you thinking that you get everything that you need. And 13 percent that are confessing that maybe they don't. So that's interesting. And we're going to go through that in just a minute. So it's back to focusing on this variety of products, nutrient density, and the amounts -'variety of products' really going to not having a crash-course diet, where you decide that, you know, spaghetti squash is the thing that's going to save you and you're going to hone in on one product and have that product be your savior. You really need to have a variety of different products, you need things from multiple groups and multiple different types of products to get a balanced diet.
The second piece about nutrient density is really about choosing products that don't have empty calories. So your nutrient-dense product would provide something, some sort of component that contributes to a positive health effect. So like a vitamin or mineral, a dietary fiber, something that's going to give you a positive. And they also have to have little to no solid fat or added sugars or refined starches or sodium. So a nutriet-dense product, that's what we're looking for, we want to replace these empty calories with things that are going to provide positive health effects. And then lastly, it's a lot about the amount that we consume, not always just what we consume but overconsumption. An obvious example of that is a look at what the size of a traditional bagel was back in the mid '70s or early '80s, versus what we have deemed to be a bagel today, which is easily two and a half times the size. The same with a hamburger or even our plates in our kitchen have gotten much larger. So we feel this need to consume larger amounts. So we need to step away from that and go back to more controlled portions. The third principle is really about limiting calories from certain subgroups. So limiting calories from added sugars, again going back to those no empty calories, and limiting your calories from saturated fats - and those two go hand in hand in regards to - there's really no room in our diet to have these high-calorie items that are not providing nutrient-dense products to us.
And if we do start over-consuming things like sugars and saturated fats, there's no room for us to get the nutrients that we need and stay within a reasonable calorie count. The other thing that we really need to limit is our sodium intake. It's well known that Americans have been overconsuming sodium for a very long time. So we need to reduce our sodium intake at the same time. The fourth principle is about shifting to healthier food choices, so at most options during the day we have a choice to choose one product or another, and it's about making that healthier choice at that moment in time, every time. So choosing that slightly healthier option is always going to give you a better outcome in the end. And the fifth one is about supporting this healthy-eating pattern for everyone. It's not just something that can happen at one point in time. At home, it could be having your children plan menus with you or cook with you or planning outside family activities so that you get that physical activity in. At the school, it could be the actual educational program that includes nutrition, as well as the healthy meals from the school lunch and the activity from from the additional time in school. For the workplace, it could be something like allowing a community garden, or having a walking working meetings or flex time so people can get to the gym before work. And that also plays into the government as well because the policy-makers really need to know all the implications of what we're doing in regards to our health so that they don't come up with policy that is that is different or not in alignment with what we're seeing in regards to healthy diets. It takes everyone to make this this type of shift that we need.
So the guidelines tell us what we're supposed to do. But then there's these key recommendations, which are telling us how we're supposed to do it, and the first one really comes off about eating healthy and having this healthy eating pattern, it has to include a total variety of vegetables as well as fruit, that fruit should especially be whole fruit not things like fruit juices or processed fruit, grain really should be minimally half as whole grains, dairy should be fat free or low fat, and that comes back into there's no room in the calorie count to have a lot of additional fat, proteins and they're calling out a variety of proteins so not just meat proteins but also proteins from beans etc, and then healthy oils. So the other thing that goes along with this healthy-eating pattern means the limitations, as well. So limiting the amount of added sugars, and they've called out specifically less than 10 percent of calories per day. So that's 200 calories based on a 2000 calorie diet. Same with saturated fats: less than 200 calories per day from a saturated fat. Sodium should be kept to less than 2300 milligrams per day. That's actually a reduction. The old Daily Values allowed for 2400 milligrams, and then also limiting alcohol. So that would be to one drink a day for females or two drinks per day for males.
In addition to all of these limitations on what we should be eating, now they're also asking you to meet the physical activity guidelines for Americans, which are associated with the DGA. I thought it might be good to go through the diet plans that they actually gave us for this, and they gave us three major meal plans or diet plans that would fit in with a healthy eating pattern. The first one is a healthy U.S. plan and it's really not very dissimilar from the old U.S. 'dash diet' which is that dietary approach to stop hypertension. It's supposed to be products that we consume here in the U.S. pretty regularly. No big culture shock in regards to the products that we're eating. The focus is really on choosing nutrient-dense products and portion control. There's a secondary version called the Healthy Mediterranean plan, which adds in more fruit and seafood and takes away from dairy products, which is also fairly-well balanced but they do have problems meeting the vitamin D and calcium in that diet. The third one that they came out with was a healthy vegetarian plan, which removed meat poultry and seafood from the diet but still includes dairy and eggs. That was how they were able to meet their calcium and protein needs. And the Vitamin D is what's the struggle on that particular plan.
So now, we had 60 percent of people who think that they are getting most of their nutrients right, and 30 percent who think they're getting all, and now we're down to 9 percent who are confessing that they really are not getting the nutrients that they need. I thought that we'd go through a day in the life of a healthy US eating plan. And so this shows you what a typical menu and they really were focusing on this one in regards to looking at sodium, saturated fats, and added sugar. So let's go through what we're having for this deal this day.
So it starts with a breakfast that's a bagel with peanut butter and banana. But it's not a whole bagel, it's only half and you're getting a whole wheat bagel and you get two tablespoons of peanut butter. So think about that. Actually a fairly small amount. You're getting a medium banana. You do get coffee. It's got some milk in it and that's kind of nice. Two teaspoons of sugar, that's pretty typical. And you get a fat-free strawberry yogurt. So a fairly small one, a smaller cup of yogurt as well. Not a huge breakfast but you know, it's a decent breakfast. The second piece that you're getting is lunch, you're getting a tuna salad sandwich with mayonaise and lettuce, and you get that between two slices of a whole wheat bread. Only two ounces of canned tuna with two TEAspoons of mayonnaise, which is a very small amount, and it's got some vegetables in it. Some celery and some lettuce. You get four baby carrots with that - four baby carrots - and a quarter cup of raisins. And then you get one cup, that's an eight ounce cup, of low fat milk. For dinner, you're getting spaghetti and meatballs, which sounds great. You get a cup of spaghetti. Now I want everybody to imagine what one cup of spaghetti looks like, with one quarter cup of spaghetti sauce. They added some additional tomatoes to that. You've got three medium-sized meatballs, a tablespoon of parmesan cheese, which is nice. You get half an apple, a cup of water, and then a pretty decent salad that's actually got some garbanzo beans and things in it, that's to increase your protein amount.
So this is what this adds up into. That's just shy of 2000 calories for the day, just shy of the max of 2300 milligrams of sodium. Right there at 8 percent of total calories from saturated fats and added sugars. There is no cookie, there is no Chips Ahoy, there is no bowl of ice cream or Swedish fish like are sitting on the corner of my desk. So this is the healthy diet that we should all be maintaining. So pretty difficult. So I ran these numbers through our program here looking at nutrient content at a different level. This is really focusing on sodium and calories right. So in looking at the nutrients of concern, first one being dietary fiber, they're not too far off. They got 24 to 28 grams. It's not terrible. Vitamin D - they only have 25 percent of the daily value from that whole diet. Calcium - you're 80 percent of your requirement. Iron - 60 percent of your daily requirement. Potassium - 60 percent of your daily requirement. In fact of all the nutrients, the only two that you're getting 100 percent of your daily value of, from that diet, is niacin and vitamin B-12, and there's some nutrients that are significantly important to brain health, like Choline, coming in at 20 percent of what your body needs in a day. So as healthy as this diet may seem, it's actually pretty woeful in regards to some of the additional nutrients.
So I want you to remember that when you're thinking about fortifying food products, and healthy diet, and what that means. Imagine what this would really be if we actually put in what people would typically consume, instead of what was deemed as a very healthy diet from the US healthy-eating plan. So to measure all of this, there's all these different acronyms that are used for nutrient levels. And we'll hear about things like RDAs and DRIs and EARs and daily values. And there's a lot that goes on there and what does all that mean and where does it come from? And I thought we would start to explain that first.
So the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is definitely the cornerstone to a lot of this. And they set reference values known as a dietary reference intakes or DRIs. There's actually four categories within the DRIs and it's an EAR, an RDA, an AI, and a UL. Now the Institute of Medicine comes across these by going through all sorts of nutritional data that's out there, as well as national surveys, and all the new data that's being studied on nutrients, and they're putting that all together to come up with what these DRIs are, and I'm going to explain what these four portions of the DRI mean. So we'll start with the EAR, the Estimated Average Requirement. So this is a median requirement and it's divided up by individual. So, age and gender comes into play. Pregnant women, lactating women, etc. And what it is, it's statistically meeting the needs of one half of the population for every subgroup. So if you think about the bell curve, this is the number at the top of the bell curve. So it meets half, 50 percent of the people in the group, it meets their needs.
Of course, that's a good number to have but not necessarily a number we want to fortify to, because we're only catching half of them. So they take that information and they create an RDA out of it, so that's a recommended dietary allowance, and it typically, not every case but typically, an RDA is the EAR plus two times the standard deviation. So now instead of meeting half the population's needs, we're meeting 97 to 98 percent of the population's needs. So this is much more aligned with what we're trying to do when we're putting a diet plan out for an entire population. Sometimes, the IOM really doesn't have enough information to feel really confident in setting an EAR, so they'll set what they call an 'Adequate Intake'. So there's just not enough data out there, but it's still based on a variety of scientific evidence. Risk of reduction of chronic disease, median intakes from national survey data. And they gather that information up, and they're hoping to eventually have enough data to feel really confident in setting an EAR. Now, AI's are really important to us because there are some of the nutrients that we fortify with that are still all based off of AI data, and that includes things like potassium and vitamin K. And while they're collecting all this data, they're certainly looking for ULs as well, and a UL is a tolerable Upper-intake Level. So it's the highest known daily intake level that's likely to pose absolutely no risk of adverse health effects, for nearly all people. So they're looking for those high spots in all sorts of research data out there to make sure that there's no negative effects and they're taking this into account when they're setting EARs.
That's the Institute of Medicine. Of course the Institute of Medicine isn't writing our policies for us. But the FDA has access to this information and works with it quite closely. They use that information from the IOM, as well as the recommendations from the DGA, and they combine it to set our daily values. So daily values are not for a specific individual, so it's not divided up by gender or by a life-stage group, or age. And they're not considered what's required for you, but they're considered a general guide for content and comparison. So you can compare two products to each other. You can make that healthier shift, right? And there's still two categories within the daily value -- on nutrition and supplements facts panels, we are only labeling daily values -- but there are still two subcategories within it. And they're called DRVs or Daily Reference Values, and RDIs for Reference Daily Intakes. On the DRVs, that's really the nutrient intake for things like macronutrients: fats, protein, carbohydrates, fibers, as well as things that we want to limit, so added sugars, saturated trans fats, cholesterol, sodium -- those all fall within this DRV portion of the daily value. The RDI, or the Reference Daily Intakes, are the things that we associate with vitamins and minerals and they are based on either RDA or AI depending on the information that we're pulling out of the Institute of Medicine. So these are the ones that we're the most familiar with -- regardless -- on our labels, what we are calling this is percentage of daily value. So whether it is an RDI or a DRV, it's still percent daily value when it goes into a finished product label.
OK. So ... we had a third survey question coming up here, and maybe you could tell me a little bit about the types of products that you make or market, or that you're working with and maybe that can help me tailor what type of information I put together when we're talking about the nutrients of concern. So right now, we're looking at roughly about 50 percent of you are working on processed foods, about 20-22 percent of you working on supplements, about 10 on medical food, 20 on sports nutrition, and 30 percent doing other things as well. So I'm going to try to cover as much of this as I can as we're going through it. And like Moira said, we certainly can answer some questions at the end, as well. So the nutrients of concern, let's talk about what makes a nutrient of concern. And these are low-consumptions occurring of these particular nutrients, in the context of the unhealthy overall eating programs that we've got going on right now. And not only are they low-consumption, but they are specifically tied to chronic disease that's preventable. So these are ones that we have a lot of information about. We know that the American population is not getting enough of, and we need to do everything we can to make sure that people are, number one, aware of their nutrient shortfalls, and two: have access to products that are going to help fill those shortfalls. And there's a list of about 10 products, five of which have become requirements.
So the nutrients of concern right now, of course dietary fiber -- this has been a nutrient of concern for a long time in this country, and it's still up there and it must be labeled but it's being labeled under the DRV section of the label. Potassium is a nutrient of concern. This has now been moved as to a requirement for product labels. Choline and magnesium are also nutrients of concern but not required for labeling. Calcium is required for labeling. Vitamins A, D, E and C where D is a required one. And then iron is still required for labeling as well. And it's really because of a shortfall for adolescent girls and women between 19 and 50 years old. We 're going to go through all of these individually and talk about them, as well as what we can do to try to help.
So we'll touch briefly on dietary fiber. The current daily value for dietary fiber is 25 grams and when we go into the new product label, we're going to be increasing that by an additional three grams, bringing it up to 28. And it's a nutrient of concern, really, due to low intakes of fruits and vegetables and whole grains, and I mean that as whole fruits and vegetables as well, versus processed. So let's look at the RDA for fiber. So across your lifespan, you might have different requirements for fiber, as well as men versus women have different requirements for fiber as well. And you'll see that the daily value got set at 28 grams, which is meeting most of people's needs throughout their years. But realize that individuals, like a 30 year old man, might need significantly more. So like I said, the daily values are set based on what's good for the entire population.
And you might have needs that are even larger than that, on an individual basis, as we can see here with dietary fiber. The sources of dietary fiber: There are some naturally occurring intrinsic fibers and so, from your food sources you can get quite a bit of fiber from an all Bran type of cereal. You can be between 9 and 14 grams, that's significant. Navy beans that can be about 9 grams per serving, a regular shredded wheat can be between five and nine grams. A pear, a normal pear, would be about five. A serving of raspberries would be about four grams of dietary fiber. In addition, there are isolated or synthetic fibers that are currently approved to be added to foods, that can be counted towards the fiber claim. This is a limited list, and there's been quite a bit of controversy over the shortness of this list. There are anywhere between 20 and 30 petitions in front of the FDA for other products to be added to this list of approved fibers. The FDA has not answered any of those yet. They've released some guidance back in February about how to fill out those petitions appropriately and give them the information they needed to feel secure in approving new fibers. But there's still been no answer to any of those petitions. So what we currently have approved are: beta glucan as a soluble fiber, psyllium husks, cellulose, guar gum, pectin, locust bean gum, and HPMC or hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose. That's it. So, as we're all expecting this list to grow, but it's just a good thing for us to be aware of when we are doing new product formulation. If you were to release the product right now, these are the only things that you really should be adding to that label as being considered as dietary fiber.
This is definitely a portion of why probably 50 percent of you haven't changed your labels yet, too.
The next nutrient of concern we're going to talk about is potassium, which is definitely a huge issue in this country. The current daily value for potassium is 3500 milligrams, and that's increasing to 4,700 milligrams, which is a huge amount, right. So this is definitely the only mineral that has a daily value anything of this size. And it's really due to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. The estimate right now is that greater than 98 percent of the American population is not meeting the new daily value for potassium. So let me go back to that diet, right. So we looked at the diet on the menu plan that the USDA put together and the potassium content there was 2700 milligrams. That was in a day, and that was a very healthy meal and that was less than the current DV. Nowhere near the new daily value. And there's some pretty serious implications to this as well. The potassium deficiency can cause high blood pressure. Potassium deficiency causes high blood pressure. It's an absolutely essential mineral for muscle contraction, healthy heart and blood vessels, electrolyte balance, and energy metabolism. So it's definitely a very critical mineral. And we're getting nowhere near what we should be. Unfortunately we don't have as much information about potassium as we'd like either because we're still studying the daily value based on an adequate intake not off of a full EAR or RDA.
So it's been set at 4700 milligrams and it looks like, as there's very little difference between men and women on this one, but as you age you do have this need for a little bit more. It seems to cap out around 4700. So that's why the daily value's been set there. Unfortunately because it's such a large daily value potassium is not the easiest to work with. So our natural sources of potassium are things like baked potatoes with the skin on, they can be between 600 and 940 milligrams of potassium, but you have to consume the skin as well. Prune juice, don't know a whole lot of people consuming prune juice, but that one's out there as well at 700 milligrams. Passionfruit, 680 so that's a pretty good source. Tomato paste: 660. White or adzuki beans could be 600. But almost everybody will say, 'Well hey I ate my banana I'm good." But a banana only has 422 milligrams of potassium. So your daily value is 11 bananas. Eleven. The fo rtification with potassium is not as easy as adding 11 bananas, unfortunately it's harder for us than that. I'm going to talk to you about the potassium sources that we work with. I gave you a couple, there's definitely other sources out there that are available, but the first thing to know is that this is a mineral and there are no pure forms of minerals that can be used as fortificants. So anytime you're adding a calcium, a magnesium, a molybdenum, as a product there's no pure source you can add.
So you're going to add some sort of salt to a product that contains another portion of a molecule. So in the case of potassium chloride it's 52 percent potassium. So you have to add more than the weight of the amount you want to add of potassium chloride to deliver that percent daily value. So that's an example. 10 percent of the daily value delivered as potassium chloride instead of it being 470 milligrams, you have to add 903 milligrams. And that would get you the 10 percent daily value. This is without overages or anything like that. Dipotassium phosphate is a little worse: 45 percent potassium you're up over a gram of weight. Potassium citrate is only 36 percent potassium. so now you're at 1300 milligrams. So in food products, that takes up space, and space is kind of critical. And it can have some pretty negative effects on ph, change the color of your product, definitely change the flavor of your product. Potassium typically kind of tastes salty, but it's got a bitter note that comes along with it that's not pretty and can be really really challenging to use in a fortified product because of that. So we do a lot with particle encapsulation here, so we can reduce those interactions and the flavor issues that come along with potassium. So we have lipid-encapsulated products that can be either 50 or 60 or 70 percent active, and that can be used in things like tablets or nutritional bars or powdered shakes. We can also do cellulose-based encapsulation, with a thinner shell, but they're designed to be stronger and not have a melting point per se, so they're really good for applications for things like gummies or high-heat applications.
So very important in regards to potassium, that we understand that it's a required product now. It's difficult to fortify with, but you're going to have to put an amount next to it on your label. So nobody wants to go into having a food product that's supposed to be healthy and have a zero in regards to the level of potassium in it. In addition, it's a nutrient that people need more of, so I would ask people to look into some of these different types of applications and see what we can do. So gummies is a good example, gummies are a product that really can have a long-lasting effect on people's nutrients because people take them, so versus a tablet which oftentimes gets put in the cabinet and left there for months, gummies tend to be consumed which is great. They taste good. And they're difficult to work with because you know you've got a limited amount space and you're trying to make it taste good. But people do take them everyday. So that's a good application for us to try to use something like an encapsulated potassium and get some sort of level in there. Also, it's a food products really good for us to try to fortify there because there are limitations as to what we can do in a tablet or in a capsule.
There is some old legislation going back there about potassium in tablets, and you are allowed to add up to 99 milligrams of potassium to a product unless you are willing to label it as a warning for potentially causing gastrointestinal ulcers.
And this is because you know, 'back in the days', or a long time ago, we had some tablets that were maybe not the best in dissolution. And they would actually adhere to the intestinal lining during digestion and they would cause these ulcers because, as you know, potassium or potassium chloride can be pretty caustic. So that legislation was written then. So in regards to the new labeling law now, they were questioned specifically about this. You know, 'we have this need for potassium, wouldn't it be nice to be able to put more than 99 milligrams in?' And the FDA did come back and say you can add more than 99 milligrams, but you better have some safety studies proving that your product does not cause gastrointestinal ulcers. So there are some options there, but they're certainly not insignificant. With that limitation on the tablet/capsule side happening, it makes a better opportunity for the fortified food side to work with potassium and get meaningful levels into products.
The next nutrient of concern we're going to talk about is vitamin D, and vitamin D is now a required label product, so where we used to have calcium and iron and vitamin A and vitamin C, that's changed. We now have potassium and vitamin D and calcium and iron. So Vitamin A and C are no longer required, and we've added this potassium and vitamin D to that section. In the current daily value, it was measured in international units and it was that 400. The new daily value is measured in micrograms instead. But it's equivalent to 800 international units, and an international unit I gave you the conversion right there, so that you can do that.
Now the thing with vitamin D, it is the only nutrient that the FDA is allowing you to label in two sets of units. And the reason for that is there's been a lot of practitioners who have recognized that vitamin D is low in their patients and they recognized the risk that that gives them. And with that they have been prescribing or recommending supplements that have a specific amount measured in international units vitamin D, and because that's become a regular practice, the FDA decided to allow this to have two units: IUs as well as micrograms. So why do we still need vitamin D, what's going on? Vitamin D is naturally present in very few foods. So it's in fatty fish, things like salmon, mackerel, tuna. It's in some fortified products like dairy products, a lot of milk products are fortified with vitamin D. And you can generate it internally, so your body will synthesize it, but only when UV rays strike the skin. So with the increased use of sunscreen, natural generation of vitamin D is very diminished and this is probably helping maintain those lower levels of vitamin D, which is why dietary vitamin D is becoming more and more important. Vitamin D on its own, it really promotes the absorption of calcium -- the two work hand in hand. So it's very strongly required for bone strength and bone growth. So important in younger people as well as in older people and in preventing osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. So it is a nutrient that really doesn't have huge sways in regards to what's required between men and women, or what's required over age. You know it's a set level it's around 600 international units, so just under that - 20 micrograms - is what's there, but the FDA set the daily value at higher than the 600. So there are some natural sources of vitamin D - you get a little out of salmon, canned tuna has 5.7 mcgs, fortified milk has 3.2, you can get a little bit of an egg - 1.1 microgram. When we're fortifying with it, it's the type of nutrient that's not the most problematic to work with. It doesn't have serious flavor issues, it doesn't have serious color issues. We're adding small amounts of white powders typically, so you can add it. We have to watch out for stability, because it can degrade. There are two really common forms that we work with, that's either cholecalciferol, which is vitamin D3, or ergocalciferol, which is vitamin D2. It used to be that we would choose one or the other based on whether it was going to vegan market or not. Vitamin D3 is produced synthetically but it starts with a cholesterol molecule and cholesterol is only from animal sources. And so although it's fully synthesized, the vegan market really didn't like Vitamin D 3. There is some other information about ergocalciferol now and vitamin D2 and so some people like it because it's not ever from an animal source. Other people like it because they believe it to be more bioavailable etc. so we'll choose between the two based on what our consumer is looking for. Vitamin D does store in your liver. So that's where the extra storage is, versus water soluble vitamins which will flush out. And it's available commercially in a variety of different oil blends, that's how they use in a lot of dairy products, or as powders. If you are using a powdered product, it should be matrix-encapsulated, meaning that it's been stabilized as a powder because it's not at its most stable in that powdered form. It can't just be plated onto some sort of carrier like silica or maltodextrin or dicalcium phosphate. It really should be encapsulated when it's dried, to help protect it.
The next nutrient of concern we're going to talk about is calcium. The current daily value for calcium has always been high, it's been a 1000 milligrams, a full-on gram, but the new daily value is actually going up. The natural sources are are pretty much dairy-based, so the vegan and lactose-intolerant diets have really been those at the highest risk for calcium insufficiency. That being said, we looked at that USDA diet, I'll go back to that, and that one we actually have a couple of glasses of milk in there and some fortified dairy products, some yogurt etc. We were still only at 80 percent of the daily value. So important to realize that, even when we are consuming dairy products, we still might be not getting 100 percent of what we require. Calcium plays hand in hand with vitamin D and is responsible for both building and maintaining healthy bones. But it's got more responsibility than that, it has a role in vascular contraction and vasodilation, definitely muscle function and calcium are closely related, in regards to heart health and muscle function, as well as nerve transmission. So most Americans are getting less than 75 percent of what their calcium requirements are.
So on the calcium DV, being set at 1300 milligrams, that's really set on what some younger population requires, at 1300. When you get a little bit older you probably need a little bit less. But then as women age again, they'll need more. So the FDA took that into consideration and set the daily value at 1300 milligrams. Sources of calcium, we have things like American cheese, which are just short of 600 milligrams, some yogurts that can be between 400 and 450 milligrams, milk - a regular serving of milk, is about 300 milligrams. Fortified cereals - they can range between 200 and 500 milligrams. When we're actually doing fortification with the products, we're using a number of different calcium sources. There can be either soluble or insoluble sources, but pretty typical would be something like a calcium carbonate - 40 percent calcium. So 10 percent of the daily value, you're adding now just over 300 milligrams of product. Dicalcium phosphate - less than 30 percent, so now we have to add 440 milligrams. A calcium citrate, that's only 22 percent calcium, now we're up at 590 milligrams to add. Calcium lactate, only 13 percent calcium, so now we're at a straight-up gram of space, to add 10 percent of the daily value. So the things that are difficult about calcium is, because it takes up so much space, it doesn't have a negative flavor of its own per se, but it can be flavour-numbing. So oftentimes we'll have to play with our flavors or increase our flavor amounts so that we can overcome that flavor-numbing or flavor-cancelling effect from the calcium. And then a lot of these, the phosphates and the carbonates, are going to have some effects on our ph, they might change our proteins on us, and the soluble versus insoluble sources - that can cause some problems. So it's important for us to understand what we're working with and make adjustments as required, and lots of times with calcium, it's a very dusty product so sometimes we'll granulate it just to keep that dust down or be able to make sure it flows right. It's also available in encapsulated form so that it can minimize that flavor-numbing issue. That's calcium.
Our next nutrient of concern is iron. This is one of the very few nutrients where the daily value hasn't changed, it's remaining at 18 milligrams, and there's really a sub-population that is at risk for deficiency and that's infants, children, teens, pregnant women, menstruating females, they all require additional Iron and so they're really the subpopulation that's that risk. Iron is very crucial, it carries oxygen and deficiencies cause things like anemia, fatigue, breathlessness, heart palpitations. This is very serious, and there are wide swings as to how much people may need. You see, a male between 19 30 years may only need eight milligrams per day, but a female the same age needs 18. So with this in mind, the FDA did take that highest number and set that as the daily. So that is going to remain at 18 milligrams. In regards to actually getting our iron, there's two major sources of it that are available - so there's either heme or non-heme based irons. Heme-based iron would be the type of iron that we're going to get out of a lean meat product or a poultry product. Non-heme iron is the type that we'll get from a leafy green vegetable. Non-heme iron is really bio unavailable unless it's taken with Vitamin C.
So if we are vegan or vegetarian, you want to be sure that the vitamin C that you're taking in, it's important that that's balanced with the iron you're taking in, so that you can get that bioavailability that's required. In regards to fortifying with iron, we have the same type of thing, there's a wide variety of bioavailability types of iron and solubility types of iron, as well as potency. So it can go from something simple like a reduced-iron which is 96 percent iron, pretty close to straight up, and you can add a very little bit of it because 10 percent of the daily value is only 1.9 milligrams, all the way up to like ferris gluconate which is 12 percent iron. And so now 10 percent of the daily value is at 14 and 1/2 milligrams. So some of these are more bioavailable, some of them are more soluble, and we pick and choose which ones we're going to use based on what our customers are looking for as well as what our products can withhold. Most of them will have negative effects on flavour. They definitely initiate oxidation of things like lipids, proteins, and flavors, and they degrade other vitamins pretty quickly, so it can be extremely reactive and they may change the color of a product, definitely will have an effect on the pH of a product. So we do what we can, in regards to encapsulation, to reduce those reactions, mask flavor, and keep products more stable. Choline is a product that's not required on the label yet.
So this is in that subcategory of - it was a nutrient of concern, the DGA recognized it as a nutrient of concern, but they chose the four worst ones to be required. Again that's the calcium, the potassium, the iron, and the vitamin D. These other ones are still nutrients of concern and honestly I would say choline is one that might be even of more concern because people aren't aware of it yet. So it's for the first time getting a daily value, it's 550 milligrams, it's brand new that you are allowed to label your choline contents in products as percent DV. And it's absolutely essential for brain health. The only common natural source is really egg yolk. So when we went in and tried to remove all the cholesterol from our diets, versus having cholesterol concerns, we took a lot of egg yolk out of our diet and choline being really the nutrient that that's the best source for it, we have increased our issues with choline-deficiency. So the daily value for it is different between men and women, and men actually need significantly more than women do, especially as they age. And so with that, the FDA did set this at the highest value needed for everyone, so 550 milligrams. An egg yolk has 147 milligrams. So there are a couple of sources that we can use to fortify with, namely a choline chloride or a bitartrate. They both are containing a certain percentage of choline. So 10 percent of the daily value can be between 75 and 120 milligrams of these two ingredients. But they're both very hygroscopic, chloride by far is the worse.
And when I say hygroscopic; if you took a small sample of it and put it in a weigh boat and left it on your desk overnight, you would come back the next morning to slush, they pick moisture up out of the air that quickly. As they pick moisture up, they also have the formation of off-odors and off-flavors, and it's somewhere along the line of dead fish. So, if you imagine trying to fortify with these products and you got a product that you try to take it out of the bag and it's as hard as rock, and then as it picks up water it tastes like dead fish, it's like "Oof, who wants to fortify with this?!" Well, this is a product that's totally required, we're only getting it from egg yolks, and we know that a huge portion of our population is low on it. So we've done what we can to try to work with Lipid encapsulation, which can work really well in tablets, nutritional bars, powdered shakes. There's starch and gum encapsulation, which can make it more free-flowing and protect against odor-formation. And then we have cellulose encapsulations as well, which are really stable for use in things like gummies, as well as other high-heat applications. So I'll go back to that USDA diet, right. The USDA diet, that 'very healthy' diet, that only had 100 milligrams of choline in it, 20 percent of the daily value. So a very important nutrient for us to be thinking about when we're talking about putting together fortified products.
We're going to talk next about magnesium. Magnesium has had a small bump in the daily value, we're going from 400 milligrams up to 420. It's an absolutely essential mineral for the transfer of energy as well as heart health, the health of bones and muscles, as well as the manufacture of genetic material. And so the daily value for magnesium is one that also is a huge shift between men and women, and men need significantly more magnesium than women typically do. And so the FDA took that highest common denominator and at 420 they set the daily value there. The sources of magnesium that are out there, you can naturally get it in things like almonds and some other nuts as well, beet greens have about 92 milligrams, brown rice / whole grains are not bad sources of magnesium. Oatmeal, raisins, etc. But we also do a lot with fortification of magnesium. Magnesium oxide is about 60 percent magnesium, it would take about 70 milligrams of product get you 10 percent DV. But it can go all the way up to magnesium chloride which is only 12 percent magnesium, which would require 350 milligrams. The same thing as we've talked about with the other minerals, we're going to pick and choose which source we're using based on how we're using it, and what the end goal is for that product and we have to keep in mind that it can be very reactive, it can initiate oxidation. Magnesium specifically doesn't like vitamin K, so we definitely have to put a layer on one or both of them to keep them away from each other if they're in a similar formula. It can change a pH of a product and it certainly can cause off flavors. So we'll use our encapsulation technologies here, the same way we would on any of these other minerals as well. Either lipid-coated or cellulose-coated as needs be.
Now we're talking about vitamin A. Vitamin A is a little bit of a different vitamin, it's fat soluble. The current daily value was in international units at 5000. The new daily value is set in micrograms of retinol-equivalents, and it's actually gone down a bit to about 3000 IUs. Required for healthy eyes and vision. That's kind of what we think about with vitamin A, we think about carrots and our healthy eyes. But it's also important for growth, of repair, and cell differentiation. It protects against infection or helping with our immunity, and it's a requirement for healthy reproduction. Vitamin A can be stored in our liver and this is the only nutrient that we've had some toxicology or toxic studies done with, whereas if you take in too much, it will store there can cause problems. Beta carotene doesn't have that because it doesn't store in your liver. If you use beta carotene as your source of vitamin A, it actually stores in the skin, and your body converts what it needs to vitamin A as it needs it. So the daily value for vitamin A is 900 micrograms and that's pretty much what men need. Women typically need less, but because it's the highest common denominator that's what's been set. And there's some natural sources out there, like we said, it does store in your liver. So if you were to eat a liver from an animal source, like a beef liver, that's a really high dose of vitamin A. Not that many people consume it, but just be aware of that. Milk runs about 139 micrograms, an egg is 84 micrograms. Typically when we're adding it to food, we're adding as A-acetate or -palmitate and those are our liquid oil products.
So when we're using them as powders, we really do need to stabilize them. They're some of the least-stable nutrients out there, so we want to make sure that we're doing everything we can to encapsulate them and stabilize them. And same with beta carotene, we will stabilise that as well. There is a conversion rate between beta carotene and vitamin A that's different than A-palmitate or A-acetate, and 1 microgram of retinol equivalence is actually two micrograms of supplemental beta carotene. And this is a big change. This would be the type of product, if you are trying to include the same amount of beta carotene as you had, the same amount of vitamin A as beta carotene you'd actually have to add twice as much. So as a reference, one cup of cooked carrots is 900 micrograms. So I've got a picture here for you showing you different types of beta carotene when suspended back in solution, because it's a beta carotene, lots of times we associate it with being orange in color. But if we manipulate it the right way we can actually make that clear as well, so that we can use it in different products without having them HAVE to be orange.
So the next nutrient we're going to talk about is Vitamin E. Vitamin E is a different type of product as well, it's another fat soluble. And it changed it's unit of measure at the same time it changed the daily values. We went from IUs to milligrams of alpha tocopherol and it's about 22 international units, so the the daily value dropped. It acts as a great antioxident, but it will act as an antioxidant both biologically as well as in our products.
We have to be aware of that when we're formulating with it. It protects biologically against free radical damage, so think cancer causers. And it also protects cell membranes, DNA, and enzymes from degradation. The daily value has been set at 15 milligrams of alpha tocopherol, and men and women need about the same amount and it's the max amount required. In regards to the conversions, it can be a little difficult and I think we have a survey question on the vitamin E.
So are you currently fortified with vitamin E, and if you are, are you using natural or synthetic? So let's see here. Well, it looks like somewhere between 30 and 40 percent of you are using natural E, 15 percent are using synthetic, and 50 are not quite sure what they're using yet. Okay, that's good to know. So I gave you some conversions here, so one milligram of alpha tocopherol is the equivalent of one milligram of RRR, or natural alpha tocopherol. So that's 1 to 1 on a natural basis. If you were using synthetic, you would now have to add twice because one milligram of alpha tocopherol, is now two milligrams of all-racemic or dl-alpha or synthetic tocopherol. The synthetic is now 2:1 and that's new for us. So anybody who was using synthetic, if you want to keep the same amount of vitamin E on your label, you would have to double it. Typically, we're using matrix-encapsulated products they're encapsulated for stability at the same time that we're converting it from an oil to a powder, they can be clear in solution like that beta carotene, or cloudy depending on what we need. And we're going to choose sources that are appropriate for our finished good.
Our last product on nutrients of concern is Vitamin C. The current daily value is going up significantly, so from 60 milligrams and the new one will now be 90. Definitely known for your health of your immune and your nervous systems. Is also a big promoter of collagen production so it becomes really important in regard to connective tissue as well as wound-healing, adrenal hormone production as well as it's capability to be in antioxident, both biologically as well as in our food products. The daily value does shift a little bit between men and women and men need a little bit more. And that's why you'll see the daily values set at that high level of 90 milligrams. The sources that we have available to us - an orange on its own has about 70 milligrams, a serving of broccoli - 58. Pineapple, a serving of pineapple is 24. It's an extremely effective oxygen-scavenger, so that's great but we need to remember that when we're doing formulation and working in the plant, because should it be exposed to oxygen and liquid at the same time, it will begin to scavenge oxygen and deplete. When we're using a vitamin C, we try to use the ones that are stabilized for our application. Ascorbic acid is straight-up vitamin C, so it's a one to one application. Sometimes we'll use sodium ascorbate because it can give us a little bit of boost in regards to stability, and so we have to add a little bit more because it's only 89 percent active vitamin C. And we have a full variety of encapsulations for stability: Lipid, starch, cellulose, for any type of application. That's the last nutrient of concern.
So in summary today we did go through a pretty decent review of what the dietary guidelines for Americans are, where that all comes from information from the Institute of Medicine and the advisory committee there. We explained the difference between RDAs, which are individualized for people, versus daily values - which we're putting on our supplement and nutrient facts panels. We talked about the nutrients of concern and how we can actually help when... this is where we can have lasting effect on the American population and try to help people have a more healthy eating pattern. We talked in overview of them individually and we talked about filling those gaps. I'm hoping that we've answered some of your questions today. I do have questions coming in as well. Moira, do you want to take the screen?
Yes, I will take it over here, and just remind everybody that they can ask questions, you'll see the little question box to the right on the screen here. We do have some questions submitted already. But as a reminder, you can submit here in the questions box.
All right. So I do have a question here about bioavailability factor into meeting of the milligrams or daily values. And in regards to the FDA, it's the amount that's added. So bioavailability doesn't really come into play in regards to daily value. So for example, ferric orthophosphate is used as a source of iron pretty commonly because it's much less reactive and has very little negative aftertaste to it, but that product we know is less bioavailable. The FDA is not taking that into consideration. So unfortunately, bioavailability doesn't always come into play in regards to regulation. It's on us to choose the right ingredients.
Let's see here... let's see what we have... yes. So there is a question about methylcellulose being... or why isn't methylcellulose approved for use as a fiber when cellulose and HPMC are. There's no real good answer for that. I think, honestly, that the FDA kind of rushed those regulations out and I think that they may not necessarily have looked at everything 100 percent clearly before they released them. That being said, we've been given probably three or four different dates as to when we should have expected to have different types of fiber products approved, but still that has not happened yet so we're hopeful that other fibers will be approved so that we can continue to use them as... towards our fiber content, but that's one that there's just no really good, strong explanation from the FDA. I think that's probably about all the time I have for questions.
Okay. So I just wanted to remind people if they want to contact us, here's our contact information. We thank everyone who has joined us today for the webinar, and Alice - thank you for sharing your insights and expertise. This is an important topic for our industry. Again, this is our contact information, if you have any additional questions or would like to connect directly with the Watson team, you can use the contact form on our web site which is watson-inc.com. By tomorrow afternoon, there will be links to this recording of the presentation and our comprehensive guide is also available for download. You can request a hard copy be mailed to you. And again, we hope that you visit us at IFT, if you're attending. We really look forward to seeing you in Chicago if you're at IFT. Thank you very much.
And my team will be attending as well. I will be there as well as several people from the nutritional R&D team, so we're happy to answer questions for you there as well.
Great. Thank you everyone. Enjoy the rest of your day!